If you are a UNIX/Linux user of any kind, I highly recommend reading Eric S. Raymond’s The Art of UNIX Programming. While I was expecting his book to be fairly one-sided about the virtues of UNIX and the shortcomings of everything else, I found the entire book to be well-balanced, informative, and very readable. TAUP could easily be used as a text for a programming class, but it’s really more of a “philosophy of programming” book. This book is filled with tons of quotable material, so I will resist the urge to make a quote-fest of this book review…
Raymond begins with a solid chapter on the Philosophy behind UNIX. He provides a number of great guiding principles for developing smart, streamlined applications. Where he could be abstract and vague, he provides concrete, usable advice. One of the great things about the book is his ample use of quotations from other UNIX gurus. From Doug McIlroy‘s A Quarter Century of Unix:
This is the Unix philosophy: Write programs that do one thing and do it well. Write programs to work together. Write programs to handle text streams, because that is a universal interface.
He also quotes Rob Pike on his 6 rules of C programming. I found the last two to be especially poignant:
Rule 5. Data dominates. If you’ve chosen the right data structures and organized things well, the algorithms will almost always be self-evident. Data structures, not algorithms, are central to programming.
Rule 6. There is no Rule 6.
Raymond goes on to compare and contrast the major operating systems of the past 20 years, including VMS, MacOS, OS/2, Windows, BeOS, MVS, VM/CMS, and Linux. He provides a framework and vocabulary for discussing OSes. Concepts like multitasking, process-spawning, file formats (e.g. textual vs. binary), and internal system boundaries differ greatly from OS to OS and have profound effects on the end user experience. Again, Raymond covers fairly academic material, making rigorous arguments using carefully defined terms. But he presents the material in a very novel and personal way, making the book feel less like a textbook and more like a pleasure read.
Once we understand the type of development environments various OSes can offer us, Raymond begins to describe criteria which we can use to set quality software apart from average software, like compactness and orthogonality. Compact software has the property that it can fit conceptually inside a human’s head. Orthogonal software has the property that operations are atomic and have no unexpected side effects; they change one thing without affecting others. Often, the concepts for good software design are best-illustrated by example, and Raymond provides many such examples to drive each point home. One of my favorite things about this material is that it has changed my thinking about design/architectural elements in my own programs.
Again, I’ll avoid the urge to summarize every chapter, as much as I’d like to. There is something to be said for letting the next reader get as much out of the book as I did. There are, however, a couple other sections of the book that I felt were compelling and deserve discussion.
One of the more enjoyable sections of the book for me was that on Unix Interface Design Patterns. Those of us who have taken a software engineering class may already have been exposed to some of the popular design patterns, so most of the vocabulary is familiar. Raymond describes patterns like The Filter Pattern, of which grep is a good example. Among other patterns, he also describes The Cantrip Pattern, The Sink Pattern, and The Compiler Pattern. The Cantrip Pattern is the simplest Unix design pattern as it has no inputs or outputs; its behavior is only affected by startup conditions. Classic examples of the Cantrip Pattern include rm and touch. Raymond reminds us to resist the temptation to write more interactive programs when a Cantrip will suffice because the program will lose scriptability.
In a further discussion of the software complexity idea, Raymond uses his “Tale of Five Editors” to explore the trade-offs between interface and implementation complexity. The five editors he compares and contrasts are: ed, vi, Sam, Emacs (my personal preference), and Wily, an editor I had neither used nor heard of. Raymond gives accurate, matter-of-fact descriptions of each of the editors and shows how . When ultimately arriving at the question of the Right Size for Software, Raymond leaves us with the Rule of Parsimony: “Write a big program only when it is clear by demonstration that nothing else will do.”
For every interesting part of the book that I mentioned in this review, there are 5 or 6 that are equally thought-provoking and affirming to those of us that embrace the *nix culture. I can’t recommend this book any stronger to any hacker or fan of Unix.